Did you know that the world is home to over 60,000 different tree species? Trees provide inumerous benefits such as clean air, water, biodiversity, social impact, health and help to regulate climate.
Read on to find out the main types of trees, where each tree species is located, common tree planting regions and some fun tree facts!
Native to mountainous areas in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, The African Juniper Tree is an important timber tree used for building houses, for poles, for furniture; bark used for beehives.
It is the only juniper to occur south of the equator.
Meaning "tree of life", this medium-sized forest tree grows to a height of 40-60 ft. Was useful in early canoes and medicines and became the first North American tree to be introduced to Europe.
The specific name, "Occidentalis", means "west," the direction from Sweden where this tree was discovered.
One of the most well-known trees in the state, given its wide distribution across forests. It is excellent as fuelwood. The disease on the bark of beech trees is currently threatening the species across its entire range.
Beechnut was used as food for the cattle. Many forest mammals and birds consume beechnuts as a regular part of their diet.
The American chestnut tree was once a dominant forest species, but due to a blight disease, is now rare. Before the blight, trees grew close to 115 ft tall, now surviving trees are smaller than 32 ft.
Chestnuts can be consumed raw, baked, boiled or roasted. It also can be dried and milled into flour.
The wood is strong and coarse-grained; largely used for veneer, crates and wheel hubs. It has nearly disappeared because of the Dutch Elm disease.
There are isolated American Elm trees that survived Dutch Elm Disease with trunks over 4.5 m in circumference!
The tree is slow-growing and is rarely found larger than 10 inches in diameter. It makes excellent fuelwood when seasoned.
Name "hornbeam" originates from old English words "horn", which was used to describe strong wood and "beam", that was used as a synonym for tree.
A forest tree of the swamps. The wood is very heavy, and strong, it is used for fence posts, telegraph poles, and railroad ties.
Some species of Larch can survive up to thousand years, most live around 250 years in the wild.
A relatively small tree, reaching only 40 ft in height. The American mountain-ash attains its largest specimens on the northern shores of Lake Huron and Lake Superior.
American Mountain Ash Trees make their own food from sunlight, carbon dioxide, water, and nutrients from the soil.
There are over 7500 varieties of apples that can be found worldwide. They are part of human diet for thousands of years. This fruit is a symbol of temptation and immorality in Christianity.
The average apple tree produces 88 to 440 pounds of apples each year.
A poplar tree that belongs to the willow family. here are six species of aspen that can be found in the temperate areas of the northern hemisphere. Aspen grows in sunny areas, on moist, well-drained soil.
The heat-resistant wood of aspen trees have application in the manufacture of interior parts of sauna and roofing.
The avocado tree needs a warm climate, little wind, and well aerated soil to thrive. The trees are partially self pollinating, but are more effectively grown through grafting or its fruit’s seed.
An avocado fruit is a type of berry.
A medium-sized forest tree generally distributed in deep, cold swamps. It is cut for pulpwood, and is used as a Christmas tree. Balsam pillows are made from the needles.
In aromatherapy uses, Fir as an essential oil, is beneficial for coughs, colds, flu, arthritis,
It is native to the southeastern United States. This cypress tree adapts to a wide range of soil types, whether wet, dry, or swampy.
The tree gets the name “bald” cypress because they drop their leaves so early in the season.
It has rapidity of growth and a wide range of uses for its lumber. It does best in the deep, moist soils. The wood is soft, used for boxes, crates, and cheap furniture.
Trees must be about 15 years old before they bear fruit.
A short-lived tree that develops best on deep moist soils, but is more common on dry, upland, sandy or stony sites, where it rapidly covers slashes and burns.
Native Americans used leaves of aspen in treatment of burned skin, swollen joints and headache.
Birch trees are characterized by their thin, papery barks. There are about 50 species native to Europe and Asia, and 15 to North America.
Birch bark was used by Native Americans to build canoes, wigwams, and bowls.
It produces bitter inedible nuts. It grows best on low, rich soil in higher ground. It grows well even in shade, so is usually found in groups of other trees.
Hickory nuts are excellent source of dietary fibers, mono-unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and minerals.
Most commonly found in deep swamps. Occasionally, though, it's found mixed with other hardwoods in moist, cold forests.
During the 19th century, ash trees were used in the production of carriages.
A medium-sized, slow-growing forest tree, common in northeastern Canada. It is used for fence posts and small poles.
Birch sap is used to manufacture wine and beer in Northern Europe, Russia and China.
The largest and most valuable of the cherry trees. It prefers rich bottomlands and moist hillsides, but is found also in drier situations. It is a valuable fast-growing timber and wildlife food tree.
The berries are used in the manufacture of liqueurs and as flavoring agents of sodas, ice-creams, and whiskeys.
A medium-sized tree, growing up to 80 ft tall, with long compound leaves. In the spring the trees produce large, drooping clusters of fragrant, white flowers.
This Locust Tree has nitrogen-fixing bacteria in its roots enabling the tree to grow vigorously in poor soil.
It can reach a large size and produces highly prized wood and large edible nuts. It is largely used in cabinetmaking, interior trim, and for gunstocks.
Black walnut trees secrete 'juglone', which kills many herbaceous plants around the root system of the tree.
The largest and most widely distributed of the native Willow Trees. It is of little importance as a timber tree as it often divides into several crooked, medium-sized trunks.
Because the tree blooms so early, they provide important nectar for bees emerging from their hives after winter.
A Bonsai Tree is not intended for production of food or for medicine. Instead, Bonsai practice focuses on long-term cultivation and shaping of one or more small trees growing in a container.
Its name stems from the Japanese word, "盆栽", meaning 'tray planting'. It is an Asian art form of cultivation techniques to replicate large scale trees, on a smaller scale in a container.
It produces attractive wood and edible nuts. It is common in moist soils, especially along fences and roads. Many butternut trees are infected with a canker disease.
The Butternut tree (or white walnut) is the only walnut tree that is native to Canada.
The cacao tree is a tropical evergreen that can grow to be up to 25 ft tall. It’s flowers are pink and white flowers, which rely on flies for pollination.
The tree’s seeds are used to make chocolate.
The California Redwood is native to California and Oregon. It belongs to the sequoia family, and can grow to be 379 feet tall.
A log of sycamore wood is priced at around 200 US dollars.
The California sycamore is large, tall tree with a fast growth rate. The tree's potentially enormous size makes it best suited for large-scale landscapes. It is used for butchers' blocks, novelties, and occasionally for furniture.
Sycamore tree seeds are known as "helicopters" because of their wings that rotate similar to helicopter's propeller on a wind.
The Canadian hemlock grows to a height of 40–70' and a spread of 25–35' at maturity. This hemlock provides excellent cover for deer and songbirds. Nesting site for several warblers. Seeds are eaten by juncos, chickadees, and siskins.
Very long lived, with the oldest recorded specimen, found in Tionesta, Pennsylvania, being at least 554 years old.
The tree can reach 20 metres high in a forest, but in cultivation it is more likely to reach 10 metres, with a spreading canopy. The large pink flowers are produced in terminal panicles and cover the tree canopy in the early summer.
Cape chestnut oil, obtained from the seeds, is a popular oil in African skin care.
This tree is native to the Amazon, and can grow to be 100 ft tall. Its white flowers produce seed which are spread by wind and water.
This tree sheds its bark to prevent the growth of lichen or fungi.
The Carolina silverbell is native to the southeastern United States. It is characterized by bell-shaped white flowers which appear in spring before the leaves.
The flowers turn into little green fruits.
Known as "sakura" in Japanese, these pale blooms stand for renewal and hope. An average Japanese Cherry Tree is around 25 feet tall, while some can grow to 50 feet tall with a 40-foot wide canopy.
Typically, they only last about 16-20 years. Certain species can live much longer. Black Cherry Trees can live up to 250 years.
This tree gets its name from its chestnut-like leaves. It is found principally on dry, rocky ridges and hillsides. The wood is similar to white oak and is used generally for ties, posts, and rough construction.
In Shakespeare's Macbeth, one of the Wayward Sisters threatens to kill a woman's husband over a chestnut.
The blue spruce has blue-green coloured needles and is a coniferous tree. This tree is often sold as a Christmas Tree, which includes the trees entire root ball so it can be planted after the holidays.
In traditional medicine, an infusion of the needles is used to treat colds and settle the stomach.
Native to Australia, Coojung grows as a small, dense, spreading tree with a short trunk and a weeping habit. It grows up to eight metres tall.
The seeds contain as much as 25% more protein than common cereals.
A deciduous tree that belongs to the poplar tree family. Cottonwood grows in marshes, floodplains and near the lakes and rivers. Cultivated for ornamental purposes, such as a windbreak, shade tree, source of food for animals and as a firewood.
Fragrant oils obtained from the eastern cottonwood are used in the cosmetic industry for the manufacture of lip balms and massage oils.
A fast-growing tree, croton grows up to 36 meters high and reaches maturity after five to seven years. It is a drought-resistant tree that can survive in harsh climatic conditions and is not browsed by animals.
Croton nut oil, has been promoted for its perceived benefits in combating climate change, greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil fuels.
It is a large evergreen coniferous tree reaching 131–164 ft tall, with a trunk up to 10 ft in diameter. It is widely grown as an ornamental tree, often planted in parks and large gardens for its drooping foliage.
As insects avoid this tree, the essential oil is used as insect repellent on the feet of horses, cattle and camels.
This tall fir tree of the North American West is only surpassed in height by the redwood. It can grow on both moist and dry sites and covers coastal and mountain slopes from 0 to 11,000'. This tree is often used as a Christmas Tree.
The thick bark of mature Douglas Fir trees, helps this tree survive forest fires with the only damage being blackened bark.
A rapid-growing, moisture-loving species that is found locally along streams and lakes. The cottonwood has been extensively planted as an ornamental tree along streets.
It is not easy to destroy, for, once cut down, the stump continues to sprout vigorously.
A valuable forest tree, particularly common on northern exposures, steep mountain slopes, and borders of deep swamps. It is largely manufactured into construction lumber.
During the 19th century, this tree was prized for its tannin-rich bark, which was harvested for use in the leather tanning industry.
As a native evergreen, the Eastern Red Cedar is a popular Christmas Tree in Southern U.S, where it is a native speices. This species is useful for windbreaks and hedges on dry soils where little else grows.
Migratory seed-eating birds are thought to be responsible for the scattered pockets of eastern redcedar near many lakes.
It grows naturally in a wide range of sites, from steep mountainsides, to hillsides and valley swamps. The tree has a wide range of uses, including interior trim, doors, boxes, and even as a Christmas Tree.
No other wood in the United States has such a wide range of uses.
The Elderberry is found mostly in the northern hemisphere, but can be found in some southern areas as well. It bears large clusters of small white flowers in the late spring, which are followed by clusters of small black, blue-black, or red berries.
Uncooked elderberries are poisonous to humans.
Engelmann spruce commonly occurs with subalpine fir in areas with long, cold winters and short, cool summers. It grows best on deep, rich soils with adequate moisture.
Specialty items such as violins, pianos, and aircraft parts are produced from Engelmann spruce.
This fast growing Eucalyptus Tree species is sold commercially and is well suited to heavy soils. It is resistant to frost and drought, will tolerate water logging and smog.
It’s floriferous nature makes it useful for beekeepers and honey production
There are over 750 known Ficus Tree species in the world, native all across the globe. Fig trees produce fruit year round that are important food sources for thousands of animal species.
Nearly every species of fig tree is pollinated by its own distinct species of fig wasp.
One of the most common understory hardwoods you will see in both hardwood and coniferous forests in eastern North America. This dogwood tree will grow from sea level to nearly 5,000'.
The dogwood is the state tree of two US States - Virginia and Missouri.
Giant sequoias are among the largest trees in the world. They grow to an average height of 164–279 ft with trunk diameters ranging 20–26 ft. Record trees have been measured at 311 ft tall.
The oldest known giant sequoia is 3 500 years old.
Also known as, “Monkey Fruit”, is a tree averaging 20 m high shrub or tree with stilt roots, short bole, and spreading branches. It is a source of food and medicine in tropical Africa.
Orange, red, purple, black, and blue pigments isolated from the fruit of mulberry trees are used as coloring agents in the industry of food and fabrics.
This tree grows at a fast rate, with height increases of more than 24" per year. Produces oblong, freestone fruit with soft, yellow skin blushed with red.
This peach tree has chill hour requirements of 800-850 hours (below 45°F (7°C)) in the winter for their buds to open in the spring.
Colonizes disturbed and harsh sites and is particularly abundant on dry, gravelly soils of burned-over areas and abandoned farms. The tree is short-lived and is rarely as much as 8 inches in diameter.
Native Americans used bark
extracts of Gray Birch on swollen or infected cuts.
There are between 30 and 60 species of dogwood. Most of them have opposing leaves, while some have alternating. All have flowers which form in clusters of varying density.
All dogwoods produce fruit, varying from flavourless to sweet.
The California incense cedar can grow up to 200 ft tall and is often used in landscaping. The Taiwan and Chinese varieties can reach about 100 ft, and are rarely cultivated.
California’s Native Americans used this wood to make bows.
It is predominantly located in California, but can also be found in Nevada, Oregon, and Mexico. It has grey-green needles, which grow in groups of three.
It is named after botanist John Jeffrey.
It is native to the Mediterranean Region and is used as bay leaf for seasoning in cooking. The Laurel is a small evergreen tree or shrub, varying in size and sometimes reaching 23–59 ft tall.
In herbal medicine, aqueous extracts of bay laurel have been used as an astringent and salve for open wounds
This tree's yellow fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world, primarily for its juice, which has both culinary and cleaning uses. The pulp and rind (zest) are also used in cooking and baking.
Lemons contain flavonoids, which are composites that contain antioxidant and cancer fighting properties.
The Lodgepole Pine is prevalent in the Rocky Mountains, Colorado to Yukon and Saskatchewan; aspen parkland and boreal forests. It is a fire-dependent species, requiring wildfires to maintain healthy populations of diverse ages.
Lodgepole pine is named for its common use as structural poles for the Native American tipi shelter.
The longleaf pine reaches a height of 98–115 ft and a diameter of 28 in. The tree is a cultural symbol of the Southern United States, being the official state tree of Alabama and the unofficial state tree of North Carolina.
In the past, before extensive logging, they reportedly grew to 154 ft with a diameter of 47 in.
Endemic tree in Kenya found in seasonally dry, open woodlands. Sometimes planted for landscape value. Generally distributed through Sub-Saharan Africa.
The roots are used in traditional medicine to treat backache.
A native of Singapore. A common and fast growing tree, it is fairly easy to identify from the bark which is covered in small lenticles giving it a unique "bubbly" texture.
The first indication of flowering is the appearance of yellow fluffy flowers on the forest floor.
Mangroves are wonderful trees that are tolerant to salt (halophytes) and can be found where the coast meets land in both tropical and subtropical climates.
Mangroves have twisted roots that keep them safe from high-impact waves. Their thick waxy leaves also act as a filter that repels salt from the water.
The Noble fir grows best in full sun and deep, moist, well drained soil, but will grow on thin, rocky soils if moisture is not limited. It is intolerant of alkaline soils, windy conditions, and shade.
The seeds are food for the chickadees, jays, nuthatches and many other bird species.
The fastest growing and largest of all the oaks native to New York State. It’s adaptable to a wide variety of soil conditions. The wood is heavy and is used for furniture, ships, and general construction.
Native Americans used the acorns to make flour.
Oak belongs to the genus Quercus comprising over 600 different trees species. Most Oak trees are deciduous with only couple of evergreen forms. Oak trees can survive in various forests, including those in temperate climates, Mediterranean and tropical areas.
Oaks produce more than 2000 acorns every year, but only one in 10 000 acorns will manage to develop into oak tree.
The olive is an evergreen tree, with leathery, elongated, sharp-pointed leaves. The olive tree has small, creamy-white flowers arranged in clusters called panicles. The first commercial crop is usually harvested after 4 years.
Unlike wine, olive oil doesn’t improve with age. A good quality olive oil should keep up to two years.
This shade-intolerant tree grows on a wide range of soils; it thrives along lakes, streams, and swamps, and maintains itself on the higher slopes of our mountains.
The paper birch gets its name from another common use of its bark: as a medium on which to write.
This tree usually grows to be 100 feet tall. Most commonly found in warm regions 6000 - 9000 ft above sea level. It has a rough, grey-brown bark with long crevices.
Oil of turpentine, obtained from the oleo-resin of all pine trees, is beneficial to the respiratory system.
Pignut hickory is a large tree that has a tall, but relatively narrow crown. The bark is tight rather than shaggy and fall color is golden. The nuts produced are bitter tasting.
Hickory can survive few hundred years in the wild. Pecan tree bears fruit even at the age of 300 years.
Not a timber-producing species, its main value lies in its ability to cover wasteland and to protect the soil until larger trees can establish themselves and crowd it out.
Because the berries are a favorite of many birds, it is often difficult to find ripe fruit on the trees.
An evergreen tree native to Central America, it is a moisture-loving tree of the tropical mountain coniferous. Due to logging and loss of habitat, the tree is considered threatened and is protected by CITES.
The typical habitat for this tree is on volcanic soils between 1800 and 3700 meters elevation.
The Pine, is a family of resinous woody trees with needlelike, usually evergreen leaves. The family is the largest and most important of the conifers, providing naval stores, paper pulp, and more lumber by far than any other family.
The oldest known specimen of Pine Tree lived until the age of 4800 years.
The wood is coarse-grained and brownish red in color. The tree seldom reaches a large size and the lumber is generally knotty. Its uses are for rough framing lumber, ties, mine props, and crates.
Pines produce resin that flows from the injured bark. This resin is highly flammable and it facilitates spreading of the forest fire.
Plum trees can grow up to 30 ft high, but are often trimmed to remain at about half that height. These trees blossom at varying times around the world, featuring flowers which vary in color.
Plums are among the first fruits cultivated by humans.
A large-crowned tree with a straight trunk, usually about 25 to 30 metres tall, but sometimes reaching a height of 50 metres and a diameter of 2 metres.
The bark has a distinctive scent of vanilla or butterscotch.
The most widely distributed tree in North America. It is a short-lived tree, but has value as a cover tree in slashes, burns, and in old fields where it quickly establishes itself.
The quaking aspen reproduces through suckering, growing new clones from its roots. The roots tend to make their way into sewers, sidewalks and other areas where they can cause trouble.
Abundant on moist slopes and increasingly common in partially cut woodlots. It is an extremely rapid-growing tree, furnishing a fairly strong, close-grained wood, extensively used for cheap furniture.
Maple trees must reach at least 40 years of age before you can tap them for sap.
Fast-growing timber tree, it is found commonly on the sandy soils. Because of its rapid growth and relative freedom from insects and diseases, it has been commonly planted on thousands of acres of idle land.
The Civilian Conservation Corps planted millions of red pines during the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The wood is light, close-grained, soft, and is in great demand for chemical wood pulp. A peculiar resonant quality that makes it valuable for the sounding boards of musical instruments. It is used also for framing.
This spruce tree was used medicinally by several North American Indian tribes as a remedy for sicknesses.
While its native habitat is wet ground, it will grow on higher land, and its bark is quite distinctive, making it a favored ornamental tree for landscape use.
Native Americans used the boiled sap as a sweetener similar to maple syrup, and the inner bark as a survival food.
Rowan can be found in the highlands (on the altitude of up to 6.500 feet), steep hillsides and cliffs. It requires slightly acidic, peaty, well-drained soil and partial shade for the successful growth. People cultivate rowan as a source of wood and in decorative purpose.
Fruit can be used as a substitute for coffee and as a flavoring agent for liqueurs and cordials.
A small to medium-sized, shade-intolerant tree, best known, perhaps, for its bark and root which have long been used for making sassafras tea. Its wood is weak, coarse-grained, aromatic, and very durable in contact with the soil.
The rich flavor from sassafras roots have also been put in soups and stews for an unusual extra flavor.
This tree gets its name from the brilliant coloring of its autumn foliage, it is most commonly found on poor soils. The wood is heavy and coarse in texture.
Oak is used in the manufacture of barrels for storing of vine, whiskey, brandy and other liquors.
It is common throughout the central and southern highlands. Its wood is heavy, harder than white oak, and dark brown in color often tinged with red. It is occasionally used for tool handles and is highest of all native woods in heat value.
“Shadbush” comes from the bloom time of this shrub being the same time that native shad fish swim up the Hudson River to spawn.
In the forest it is a tall straight-branched tree but in open fields and along hedgerows where it often grows it usually forks near the ground into stout ascending limbs. The fruit of the Shagbark Hickory is important for wildlife.
Hickory wood is sometimes used to barbecue, as it is loved for the smoked flavor it imparts to meat.
Known also as the silky oak, this evergreen is fast growing and can reach up to 100 ft tall. The flowers are long and spindly, and usually orange in colour.
Young trees can be kept as houseplants.
Frequently planted as a shade tree on account of its rapid growth, but with its weak wood it shouldn't be planted near homes or cars.
Maple is considered a tonewood, carrying sound waves well, and is thus used in numerous musical instruments.
A medium-sized forest tree of stream banks and low fertile slopes and is common south of the Adirondacks. The wood is hard, heavy, strong, coarse-grained, and fairly durable in contact with the soil. This tree is used for fence posts, ties, barrel staves and hoops.
The mucilage found in its bark is ideal for soothing the digestive tract and eliminating inflammation.
A small deciduous tree, found in Southern Africa and northwards to central and eastern Tropical Africa. It is drought and frost tolerant. It produces a good timber with a greyish-blue heartwood and suitable for woodworking.
It is popular with beekeepers due to its high nectar production that attracts a multitude of bees and butterflies.
Besides providing beautiful borders to many miles of highway, and hundreds of thousands of gallons of maple syrup from the many thousands of sugar bushes in all parts of the state, it yields a wood of high grade.
It takes 40-50 gallons of tree sap for the production of one gallon of syrup.
Sweetgum is one of the most aggressive pioneer tree species and quickly takes over abandoned fields and unmanaged cut-over forests. It will comfortably grow on many sites including wetlands, dry uplands and hill country up to 2,600'.
It is considered a hardwood species with wood weighing 52 pounds per cubic foot and is used in furniture and plywood.
This tree can live between 100-200 years and grow to be 100-210 ft tall. The base of the trunk has a rough brown bark, which becomes smooth an grey or white a few feet up.
Koala’s eat the leaves of this tree.
Its large tulip-like, greenish yellow flowers have given rise to the name "tulip tree." Veneer of yellow-poplar is highly prized in airplane construction.
The Tulip Tree is the tallest of North American hardwoods and can range from 100-150 feet high.
A species of evergreen tree native to Africa. The wood is resistant to insect attack and very strong. Its timber is good for construction and furniture making.
Early Indian immigrants to Kenya, used the leaves to flavour their curries before the chilli plant was commonly introduced.
Walnut trees can grow to be between 33 and 130 ft tall. They fare well in droughts, but need lots of light and wind protection to thrive.
Nuts from all species of walnut tree are edible, but those from the Juglans regia are the most commonly sold variety.
This large, tree can grow to 80 metres tall and 850 years of age. Like all larches, it loses its needles in the autumn. The wood of western larch is one of the strongest in Canada. It is often used in heavy construction and for railway ties and pilings.
Native people used to collect sap and inner bark from this tree because it contained a natural sugar gelatin.
It is common throughout New York and is found up to an altitude of 2000 feet in the Adirondacks. It prefers to grow in rich moist woods, and is common on abandoned agricultural lands.
The wood is strong and elastic at the same time, making it perfect for the production of baseball bats, hockey sticks, and tennis rackets.
This tree is native to the mountains of western North America. They can live for over 300 years and naturally occur at an elevation between 2 950–11 200 ft.
The tallest recorded White Fir reached 246 ft tall.
Growing to large size and producing lumber of high grade and value. It is found in moist as well as in dry locations. White oak acorns are an important food for wildlife.
Oaks can absorb up to 50 gallons of water each day.
The wood is in great demand for chemical pulp. While native to Northeastern U.S and Canada, this tree is prized for its thick branches making it ideal as a Christmas Tree.
Tips of spruce needles are used to manufacture spruce tip syrup.
Common on rich, moist uplands but is found also in swamps and along waterways. The close-grained, light brown wood is largely used for furniture, airplanes, and agricultural implements.
Its seeds often sprout and grow from the tops of rotten stumps and logs.